Thursday, September 2, 2010


                          WASHING     AND   FINISHING            OF   SILK

AIM  :---To   learn   the   method   of    washing    and     finishing    of  a  silk  garment  .
PREPARATION   :---Re-pair   tears     and   openings    in  the   seams       before  washing    
as     these    are   lightly   to    enlarge    during  the  washing  process  .
STAIN  REMOVAL  :---Fresh   stains   are  preferably   removed    if  possible  with   cold  or  warm  water  according  to  the  nature  of  the  stains  .  For   old  stains   which   are   difficult    to   remove
use  re - agents  such  as  weak   solutions  of   borax    or   sodium  perborate    for    coloured  silk  . Gevelle  water   never   be   use    for    silks   , as  this   will  damage   the  fibre .
STEEPING  :--- Steeping  is   not  essential    because     silk   is   cleaned    easily .  Very    soiled    white    and    pale    colored    silks    which   are    discolored    by   wear  . May 
be  steeped  in  warm  water  for  a  short  time  .  A  small   prepotion    of   borax   ,  added
to   the   water  will   make  it  more   effective  .
SOAP   AND    WATER   :---Silk     material     is     of    fine    texture    and   is   usually   
an     expensive     fabric  ,   so   a  good    neutral     soap    should    be    used  .   Soap
flakes  ,   soap      fluid     and     re-etanal    solution     are    suitable .   water    for    silk     
must    be     soft  .
                                                  Dissolve    soap    in     hot     water     and     then   add   sufficient    cold  water    to     reduce    the     solution     to    looke    warm    temperature  .
If    the    water    is    hard   then    add   1/2    teaspoon     of    borax     or    N H 3   to   soften     it  .   If    re-etanut    solution     is     used    ,  strain     it   through   muslin   
before    mixing     it    with     more     water  .
PROCESS    CLEANSING   :---Cleansing     is   done    by    kneading    and    squeezing  or
by    suction    washing  .  Press    the    article   in  the    washing     solution    allow    it   to   be   saturated    with     soap    and    wash    rubb      lightly    the     most    soiled     parts   
with    additional    lather  . If    the    articles    are   very     soiled   add   a  little    more   
borax    or    NH3   in  the  washing  solution  .
                                                      Rins    the     silks    in   two    or   three    warm    waters     
to   remove     the     soiled     soap    from  the    fabric  .  Add   a   few   drops     of    citric
acid    or   acetic     acid   to  the    lost  rins    ( which    should    be   of   cold water  )  to   
improve     the   sheen    of    the    fabric  .
STIFFENING   OF    SILKS    :---There    is  a   natural    gum    in  the   silk     fibre  ,  which  
is    stiffens   by   the   final    cold    rinse    giving    a   light   stiffness    to  the  fabric  .  If
extra   stiffness   is   necessary    add    gum    water    to   the   last  rinse   .  (  2  teaspoons  
to   a  1/4    gallon    of   water  )  Shirt    fronts ,  tucks   and   corners   are   need    more    
stiffening    and   some  added   .   Silk    should   be    squeezed   lightly   by   hand   to   remove    the   moisture  .
DRYING   :---Heat   must    be   avoided   and  so   ,   drying     of    silk    is    not    done
in  the  sun  .  Small    articles    need    no     drying  .    After    removing  the   moisture
these   are    rolled    in  a   dry  cloth   for  half  an  hour   before   Ironing .   Big    articles
and  thick    silks    should  be   partly    but   evenly  dried    by    hanging    these    in  a  shading   place   or    indoors .  Silks    cannot    be    damped   for  ironing     as  the   silk
fibre     is    not   hygroscopic  and    the  moisture   will   not   be   distributed   evenly   
and   will   leave   water  spots  .   so   silk   is   not   completely     dried   but   kept   slightly   
damp  for   finishing  .
FINISHING  :---A  hot  iron   will   scorch     silk    while    a  cold  one   will  drag   and   crease  the   surface  .  The   heat   of   the   iron    should  be  tested   on  a  piece  of  paper
if  no  mark    is   left   on  the   paper   until   you  have   counted   three  .  The   temperature
is   correct  .  All   silks  should  be   ironed     till   they  are    dry    or   creases   will   re -appear   on  the  portions     left  damp  .
COLORED  SILKS  :--- Fast   colored    silks   are   treated   in  the   same   way   as  white   silks  .  To    revive  the   freshness  of  the   color   use    vinegar  citric  acid   in  the   last  rinse .  Silks   of   doubtful   color   should   be   steeped  for   one   or   two  minutes   in  cold water    with  two    or  three   spoons    of   vinegar   or  a   few  drops   of   acetic   acid  .  
Then   wash   quickly   in   lukewarm   or  almost  in  cold   water  .   Rinse   in  several  waters . Dry  cleaning    is   advisable   for   silks  .            
CONCLUSION  :---For    silks    proper   method   of   laundering   helps  to  keep   the   texture    and   the  sheen   of  the    fabric     even    after   repeated    washing   and   also   
helps   to   prolong    the   life   of  the  fabric  . 

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